*Until recently, Motyxia and its 8 species were the only confirmed instances of bioluminescence in millipedes. A recent publication demonstrates that the species Paraspirobolus lucifugus (=Spirobollelus phosphoreus, =S. takakuwai) from the Federated States of Micronesia, Taiwan and Japan is also bioluminescent. There are several unconfirmed reports of other bioluminescent taxa, including Apheloria luminosa from Nebraska (U.S.), Salpidobolus (=Dinematocricus) from New Caledonia, and the “Maeng-Kah-Reaung” from Thailand. The species from Thailand also apparently inhabits the ears of humans and causes tinnitus.
Haneda (1967) ? Science Reports of the Yokosuka City Museum. 13, 1-4.
Oba, Branham, Fukatsu (2011) The terrestrial bioluminescent animals of Japan. Zoological Science. 28, 771-789.
Shinohara & Higa (1997) A new record of the luminous millipede, Spirobolellus takakuwai Wang, 1961, from Okinawa, Japan. Edaphologia. 59, 61-62.
Takakuwa, (1941) ? Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa. 31, 84-87.
Yuswadi (1950) Tinnitus aurium and the luminous millipede. Siriraj Hospital Gazette. 2.
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